|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 99-101
Posttraumatic subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm: An endovascular approach
Ilayakumar Paramasivam, Shabnam Fathima, N Sritharan, Krishna Muralidharan, Jayanth Vijaykumar
Department of Vascular Surgery, Institute of Vascular Surgery, Madras Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
|Date of Submission||23-Aug-2019|
|Date of Decision||25-Oct-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||03-Nov-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||16-Mar-2020|
Dr. Shabnam Fathima
Department of Vascular Surgery, Institute of Vascular Surgery, Madras Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The use of minimally invasive vascular techniques for vascular injuries is on the rise. We report a case of stab injury with pseudoaneurysm of the subclavian artery treated with “covered” stent of the subclavian artery. The patient presented a month after the injury and was hemodynamically stable. Hence, a computed tomography angiogram of the arch of the aorta and left upper limb was performed and taken up for elective stenting of the left subclavian artery. The completion angiogram showed complete exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm, with normal runoff to the upper extremity. In conclusion, penetrating arterial trauma in inaccessible sites can be successfully managed with minimal morbidity by endovascular means.
Keywords: Covered stenting, endoleak, subclavian artery
|How to cite this article:|
Paramasivam I, Fathima S, Sritharan N, Muralidharan K, Vijaykumar J. Posttraumatic subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm: An endovascular approach. Indian J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020;7:99-101
|How to cite this URL:|
Paramasivam I, Fathima S, Sritharan N, Muralidharan K, Vijaykumar J. Posttraumatic subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm: An endovascular approach. Indian J Vasc Endovasc Surg [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Apr 8];7:99-101. Available from: http://www.indjvascsurg.org/text.asp?2020/7/1/99/280676
| Introduction|| |
Traumatic injury of the subclavian artery  is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Due to the adjacent location of the brachial plexus, pleura, and the thoracic duct on the left, the surgical procedure is challenging and morbid as it may require a sternotomy for proximal control. Recently, endovascular techniques have emerged as a valuable alternative  to open surgical management. Although it can be associated with complications, they are amenable to multiple noninvasive management modalities. We report a case of subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm presenting 1 month after injury treated by the endovascular procedure.
| Case Report|| |
A 20-year-old male was referred to us with pulsatile swelling in his left supraclavicular fossa for 1 month, following a stab injury over his left supraclavicular fossa [Figure 1]. He had no distal neurovascular deficit and any syncope following injury. He had no comorbidities. On examination, he had a 4 cm × 4 cm × 3 cm pulsatile swelling left supraclavicular fossa, with an overlying sutured wound. He was hemodynamically stable.
Hence, he underwent a computed tomography (CT) angiogram which showed a 4.3 cm × 4.5 cm × 4.2 cm pseudoaneurysm of the left subclavian artery arising distal to its origin from arch, with the vertebral artery arising from the sac [Figure 2]. The right vertebral artery was normal, and the circle of Willis was complete. An open procedure would require a thoracotomy for proximal control in this young patient, hence endovascular repair was planned.
|Figure 2: Preoperative computed tomography angiogram showing left subclavian pseudoaneurysm|
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A left brachial artery open access was planned. A 9 cm × 45 cm long sheath was used. Digital subtraction angiography showed a trilobed pseudoaneurysm from the subclavian artery [Figure 3]. The CT angiogram finding was confirmed. A 150 cm Amplatz stiff wire was used for support and wire placed in the aortic arch. A 8 mm × 60 mm fluency * stent was deployed with the proximal end of the stent jutting a little into the aortic arch [Figure 4]. The left vertebral artery was covered in this process. No retrograde filling is seen from the left vertebral artery. No cerebrovascular symptoms observed in the patient.
|Figure 3: Digital subtraction angiography image showing trilobed pseudoaneurysm sac|
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In the immediate postoperative period, the patient showed persistent pulsatile swelling in the left supraclavicular fossa. Duplex assessment showed a Type 1b endoleak in the stented subclavian artery. He underwent serial compression of the region. On the postoperative day 10, CT angiogram was repeated, and it showed resolved endoleak and complete thrombosis of the pseudoaneurysm [Figure 5].
| Discussion|| |
Penetrating injuries of the neck are associated with arterial injuries in 25%–56%, with mortality of 10%. The neck is divided into three zones. Zone 1 is between the clavicle and the cricoid cartilage with potential for major vessel injury. Zone 2 is between the cricoid cartilage and the angle of the mandible. Zone 3 is above the angle of the mandible till base of the skull. The vessel injury in Zone 1 can occur following a posttraumatic penetrating injury or iatrogenic injury. Multiple reports of iatrogenic injury following central venous catheterization has been reported in literature. Such case of subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm can be managed through multiple endovascular techniques such as thrombin injection, coil embolization, and covered stenting, or through open surgical approach which will require a thoracotomy and is morbid. Thrombin injection has been associated with allergy in some patients. Subclavian artery stenting is immediately successful in most patients. A 8 mm × 60 mm stent graft was used based on the distal normal subclavian artery diameter measured during angiogram and the availability in our inventory. The proximal extent of stent was extended into aorta and flared up to prevent an endoleak. There are reports of post stenting endoleak in literature, as we encountered in our case. Thus, the endoleak in our case is possibly not due to undersizing of the stent graft. It can also be tackled through thrombin injection through interstices of the graft. Coil embolization and percutaneous injection of thrombin have also been reported with success. However, we opted to manage our patient conservatively with compression and serial monitoring, though there is a risk of stent deformation with this approach. The bare-metal stent has a notable risk of deformation or fracture due to biomechanical interaction as a result of repeated stent flexion and significant dynamic compression of the subclavian artery, in particular, at the lateral portion within the costoclavicular space (between the clavicle and the first rib) during arm abduction, but a stent graft has been used in ours patient. A major limitation of covered-stent exclusion is the risk of occlusion of the vertebral artery, leading to risk of cerebellar or posterior fossa infarction.
| Conclusion|| |
In this era of minimally invasive therapy being used in all spheres of surgery, such posttraumatic pseudoaneurysm of major vessels in a patient can be approached through endovascular techniques with reduced morbidity. Complications are minimal and they can be treated with endovascular techniques.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient has given his consent for his images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patient understood that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]