Indian Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

CASE REPORT
Year
: 2017  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 23--24

True Idiopathic Brachial Artery Aneurysm: A Rare Case of Surgical Emergency


Nayem Raja1, Navnita Kisku1, Latika Gupta2, Muhammad Abid Geelani1,  
1 Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, G. B. Pant Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Pathology, G. B. Pant Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Nayem Raja
Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, G. B. Pant Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, New Delhi
India

Abstract

We report a case of true brachial artery aneurysm of idiopathic origin in a 53-year-old man complicated by distal thromboembolism resulting in acute critical upper limb ischemia. True aneurysm of the brachial artery is a very rare condition which may be asymptomatic or rarely present with acute thromboembolic episode. Surgical repair is the mainstay of treatment in these cases.



How to cite this article:
Raja N, Kisku N, Gupta L, Geelani MA. True Idiopathic Brachial Artery Aneurysm: A Rare Case of Surgical Emergency.Indian J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2017;4:23-24


How to cite this URL:
Raja N, Kisku N, Gupta L, Geelani MA. True Idiopathic Brachial Artery Aneurysm: A Rare Case of Surgical Emergency. Indian J Vasc Endovasc Surg [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Jan 19 ];4:23-24
Available from: http://www.indjvascsurg.org/text.asp?2017/4/1/23/198072


Full Text

 Introduction



Brachial artery aneurysm is a rare entity of which most of them are pseudoaneurysms.[1],[2],[3] True aneurysm of brachial artery is very rare and may be due to atherosclerosis, congenital connective tissue disorders, repetitive trauma, Kawasaki syndrome, Buerger's disease, or idiopathic.[4] Mostly it is asymptomatic, however, may present with features of distal embolism along with a pulsatile mass over the arm.[1] We report a rare case of idiopathic true brachial artery aneurysm of the right brachial artery complicated by acute right upper limb ischemia.

 Case Report



A 53-year-old nonsmoker, nonhypertensive male with no history of trauma, infection, and no family history suggestive of connective tissue disorder, presented with acute right upper limb ischemia along with a pulsatile mass of 4 cm diameter over right mid-arm. Doppler study revealed an aneurysmal sac arising from the right brachial artery in its mid-portion with echogenic debris inside the sac and the distal brachial artery with no flow in distal brachial, radial, and ulnar arteries. Urgent intervention under right brachial plexus block in the form of excision of the saccular aneurysm arising from the right brachial artery was done. Morphologic features of aneurysm were suggestive of true aneurysm [Figure 1]. Distal thromboembolectomy was done using a Fogarty catheter and an interposition reversed saphenous venous graft was used for brachial artery reconstruction [Figure 2]. Both the proximal and distal anastomoses of the reversed saphenous venous graft was done in the end to side fashion. Postoperatively, both radial and ulnar pulses were palpable, and graft patency was confirmed by a Doppler study at 2 months follow-up.{Figure 1}{Figure 2}

Histopathological examination of the excised specimen of the aneurysm showed disorganization and disruption of the internal elastic lamina with the presence of all the layers of vessel wall, confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin and Verhoeff-Van Gieson stain, suggestive of true aneurysm of the brachial artery [Figure 3].{Figure 3}

 Discussion



Peripheral artery aneurysms of the upper extremity are rare of which brachial artery aneurysm is rarer with an incidence of about 0.5% of all peripheral artery aneurysms.[5],[6] Brachial artery aneurysms are mostly pseudoaneurysms resulting from trauma, drug abuse or iatrogenic procedures.[7],[8] A very few cases of true aneurysm of the brachial artery have been reported in literature. Clinical presentations are varied ranging from asymptomatic mass over arm to features of distal thromboembolism rarely.[1] Prompt surgical repair is the recommended modality of treatment in all these cases to prevent catastrophic complications.[1],[2],[6],[8] Our case of Idiopathic true aneurysm of the right brachial artery presented with acute critical right upper limb ischemia with a mass over mid arm and an urgent surgical repair with an autologous interposition reversed saphenous venous graft and thromboembolectomy was done.

 Conclusion



True aneurysmal degeneration of the brachial artery is a very rare occurrence which may rarely present with an acute thromboembolic phenomenon distally. Surgical repair without delay is warranted and is the recognized modality of treatment for it.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

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